Pneumonia vaccines in cattle

Pneumonia vaccines in cattle

An effective vaccination strategy for the most common causes of pneumonia on a farm is an important part of the herd health plan to prevent respiratory disease, in combination with good management and appropriate building design and ventilation.​


Respiratory disease is an infection of the respiratory tract caused by viruses and/or bacteria. It occurs when either bacterial and/or viral agents are combined with poor air quality and ventilation, poor husbandry and/or stress. Financial losses result from mortality, extra labour and treatment costs, but the greatest loss is from weight loss during illness and recovery.
The cost: £80m per year (Scott 2009) to the national herd (£30 per mild case, £500 when the animal dies).
Twelve vaccines for pneumonia were marketed in the UK:
  • Bovalto Pastobov contains Mannheimia haemolytica type A1 antigen
  • Bovalto Respi 3 contains inactivated M. haemolytica A1 and inactivated Bovine respiratory syncytial and Parainfluenza 3 viruses
  • Bovalto Respi 4 contains inactivated M. haemolytica A1 and inactivated Bovine respiratory syncytial, Parainfluenza 3 and BVD viruses
  • Bovalto Respi Intranasal contains modified live Bovine respiratory syncytial virus and Parainfluenza 3 virus
  • Bovilis Bovipast RSP contains inactivated M. haemolytica A1 and inactivated Bovine respiratory syncytial and Parainfluenza 3 viruses
  • Hiprabovis SOMNI/Lkt contains inactivated M. haemolytica leukotoxoid and inactivated Histophilus somni
  • Imuresp RP contains modified live Parainfluenza 3 virus and Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) virus
  • NASYM contains modified live Bovine respiratory syncytial virus
  • Rispoval 3 contains modified live Bovine respiratory syncytial virus and Parainfluenza 3 virus and inactivated BVD virus
  • Rispoval 4 contains modified live Bovine respiratory syncytial virus and Parainfluenza 3 virus and inactivated BVD virus and Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BVH-1
  • Rispoval® Pasteurella contains inactivated M. haemolytica
  • Rispoval RS contains modified live Bovine respiratory syncytial virus
  • Rispoval RS+PI3 Intranasal contains modified live Bovine respiratory syncytial virus and Parainfluenza 3 virus
Vaccines for Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) containing only Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) have not been included in the estimated uptake of vaccines targeted at calf pneumonia. Uptake of vaccines for BHV-1 has been estimated separately.

Assumptions​

Numerator: The number of doses of vaccine administered has been calculated by multiplying the number of packs sold by the number of doses per pack.
The recommended primary vaccination course for these vaccines was used to estimate the number of cattle vaccinated in each calendar year.
Denominator: With these vaccines, the common industry practice is to only vaccinate animals in the first year of life. It was assumed that only animals under one year of age should be vaccinated; the total population of cattle under one year of age was used as the denominator for the target population.

Vaccination uptake​

The uptake of vaccines for pneumonia rose steadily, from 29% in 2011 to 43% in 2020, although in 2019 pneumonia vaccine sales had decreased to average levels.
Pneumonia vaccine in cattle uptake graph.
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