Just to add to that, are cover crops required in the fields to keep the soils active if they’re already planted with the rows of trees?I’m researching agroforestry but unfortunately don’t know too much about farming practises themselves. The idea was to alley crop with apples trees, willow trees for bio fuel and then have cereal crop, field possibly potatoes. From what I understand, in monoculture crops the fields are rotated and left fallow. So instead of leaving it fallow between the trees, I should use cover crops instead and then rotate between how many fields, 2/3? The idea was to also have an area of silvopasture, parkland style planting with cattle grazing between the planted tree clumps. Thank you for your help and I apologise for my lack of knowledge.